Here’s an informative article by Deb Wiley on perennial vegetable garden plants for Better Homes & Gardens.
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A lot of favorite garden vegetables, such as beans, peppers, potatoes, and tomatoes (technically fruits!), are annuals. They complete their life cycles in a single growing season, so you have to plant them year after year. There aren’t many true perennial vegetable garden plants, and the ones that are can vary slightly by region, but there are a few out there that don’t need to be replanted every year. As you plan this year’s vegetable garden, include a few slightly off-beat veggies among your tomatoes and potatoes, and they’ll reward your efforts by providing fresh food next year without the work of replanting.
When growing artichokes as perennials, amend the soil around plants each spring with a 1- to 2-inch layer of compost. In areas where globe artichokes are marginally hardy, cut back the plant in fall and cover with a 6-inch-thick layer of straw. Harvest perennial artichokes in spring, with a secondary peak in fall. Harvest the flower buds when the stalk has fully extended but the bud has not opened. Err on the side of early harvest rather than late to avoid woodiness in the heart. Globe artichokes are marginally hardy in Zones 6-7 and hardy in Zones 8-10.
Members of the Onion Family
Rhubarb stalks have the best color and flavor when harvested during cool weather. Leave first-year plants unharvested. By the third year, harvest all stalks larger than 1 inch wide for as long as eight weeks. Use only the stems in your rhubarb recipes; the leaves contain oxalic acid and are poisonous. Rhubarb is hardy in Zones 2-9.